Have humans been sailing the seas for a million years?

painting sea


Have humans been sailors for a million years?

IT WASN’T supposed to end this way. The 23-metre-long Nale Tasih 1, made with Stone Age tools and materials, was meant to recreate one of the truly epic prehistoric journeys: the first human crossing from Indonesia to Australia some 65,000 years ago. The voyage, in 1998, should have taken more than a week, but water sloshing around the crew’s feet on the first day was a clear sign. The team had to tow the doomed raft back to shore.

The very first humans to travel the oceans would have faced a daunting task, both physical and mental. By attempting to recreate their voyages, experimental archaeologists are helping to define the scale of that challenge. The Nale Tasih 1 expedition, however, was meant to help prove a grander theory. Its leaders say humans have been building and using watercraft to reach new lands for the best part of a million years. In other words, early humans – potentially including Neanderthals, Denisovans and Homo erectus – weren’t diehard landlubbers. They were mariners.

It is still a minority view, but one with profound implications. The ancient mariners theory could completely change our perspective on how early humans behaved and communicated with each other.

The broad consensus is that our species, Homo sapiens, largely took over the world on foot. Our ancestors walked out of Africa, through or around Arabia to South Asia, over to East Asia, and via various routes to Europe. They even walked to the Americas over a land bridge that once stretched from present-day Siberia to Alaska. The only major land mass that had to be reached by sea was Australia. We know that journey took place at least 65,000 years ago from stone tools, an ancient hearth and the leftovers of a meal, all discovered inside a rock shelter near the country’s northern coast.

Comment: It would be worth bearing in mind when reading this article that, perhaps, in the distant past, Australia wasn’t always separated by so vast a body of treacherous water. Because if sea levels were lower and the climate was milder, as a number of scientists propose, then the possibility of accessing these land masses may have much been easier.

Setting out for Australia was an astonishing leap of faith. The journey presumably began somewhere in Indonesia, and the voyagers may even have headed off into the open ocean with no sight of land. Nonetheless, “they absolutely knew there was a big continent down there”, says Robert Bednarik, lead archaeologist on the Nale Tasih 1 enterprise. “The smoke from Australian bush fires rises up to 2 kilometres and that would certainly have been visible.” Southerly bird migrations could also have offered clues. One recent study suggested that a string of islands may have offered stepping stones.

We may never know what kind of boat they used. To build the Nale Tasih 1 and its successor the Nale Tasih 2 – which did reach Australia after 13 gruelling days at sea – Bednarik and his collaborators made educated guesses based on what is readily available in Indonesia. They lashed many tonnes of bamboo together with vines, and wove sails out of palm-leaf fibres. Boats or rafts could also have been carved out of wood or woven from reeds, but either way the materials probably rotted away long ago.

Still, few archaeologists doubt that the first human voyage to Australia was deliberate and undertaken by sailors who are just a few thousand generations removed from us. Their ability to observe, reason and carry out an ambitious plan would have equalled our own. Things become far more controversial when it comes to the large and growing body of evidence that much earlier human species also put to sea (see map).

In the 1970s, archaeologists working on the Indonesian island of Flores began finding what appeared to be stone tools that predated H. sapiens alongside the remains of extinct animals. The discoveries were inconvenient, and largely ignored for decades.

An early human presence on Flores seemed particularly improbable because of the island’s weird biology. During the 19th century, biologist Alfred Russel Wallace had noted that the islands to the north and west of Flores – including Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali – are typically inhabited by Eurasian species like orangutans and tigers. They are largely absent to the south and east, on Flores and other islands including Sulawesi, Lombok and Sumbawa. Eventually biologists came up with an explanation. In prehistory, sea levels were so much lower that Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali were part of the mainland, but a deep marine trench to the south-east, swirling with strong currents, kept Sulawesi, Flores and their neighbours separate. In other words, snaking through the islands of South-East Asia is an invisible species barrier, now dubbed the Wallace line, that apes and tigers could not have walked or swum across. In places it is narrow: the strait between Bali and Lombok is little more than 20 kilometres across, but remains impassable to large species.

In the 20th century, it was generally agreed that Eurasian megafauna – species the size of humans or larger – had breached the Wallace line perhaps just twice. First across were elephants, powerful swimmers whose relatives left fossil remains on Flores and elsewhere. Then came H. sapiens, who must have breached the Wallace line en route to Australia around 65,000 years ago.

To most researchers it seemed impossible that some form of human had made it across the Wallace line hundreds of thousands of years before our species evolved. Today, though, we can no longer ignore the evidence from Flores, since supplemented by human remains dating back 700,000 years. It’s not clear exactly where these ancient humans fit in our evolutionary tree, but one thing is certain: they did cross the Wallace line.

Bednarik argues that they must have done so intentionally. Beginning with the Nale Tasih 1, he has spent 20 years building proxies for prehistoric rafts and attempting to repeat journeys to places like Australia and Flores. In doing so, he is upholding a grand tradition of experimental maritime archaeology that stretches back to the 1940s, when Norwegian adventurer Thor Heyerdahl rafted thousands of kilometres from South America to Polynesia.

Among Bednarik’s voyages have been a fair number of failures, including an attempt to cross the Wallace line in 1999. The first raft his team launched from Bali had a crew of six rowers, but their efforts were no match for the currents. By January 2000 his team had built another raft, strong and buoyant enough to carry a dozen rowers. This time they reached Lombok, but only after 12 hours of furious paddling and some good fortune with the currents. “We made it by a whisker,” says Bednarik.

In his judgement, the experiment disproves what has become the accepted explanation for Flores’s ancient human inhabitants: that they were unintentional mariners, plucked from the shore by a storm and swept across the Wallace line. “It’s just not possible to cross a [strait] passively without anything pushing you,” he says. Curtis Runnels at Boston University says Bednarik’s experiments may not prove that early humans built and used seacraft, but they show it is at least theoretically possible. “The stone tools and reed bundling were well within the capacities and capabilities of what we know about early humans,” he says.

Accidental mariners?

Most other archaeologists are not so sure, particularly because we have no way of knowing whether ancient humans really crossed at the Lombok Strait. It is possible they breached the Wallace line much further north, where the currents are – and probably were – less strong.

We know, for instance, that small monkeys somehow made it across the line to Sulawesi, and clearly they didn’t use boats – in all likelihood they floated over on mats of vegetation. Gerrit van den Bergh at the University of Wollongong in Australia has found stone tools on Sulawesi that are at least 100,000 years old, and thinks this is where the first Floresians came from. Just last month a team announced they had found 700,000-year-old stone tools in the Philippines, offering another possible route.

map sea faring human


But there are fundamental problems with the idea that ancient humans reached islands entirely by accident. For starters, “tsunamis kill people”, says Runnels. “They don’t float them out to sea on huge rafts of vegetation with sufficient food to [survive a] long drift.”

Then there is what has been dubbed the Robinson Crusoe problem. A single individual surviving on an accidental raft couldn’t possibly establish a viable population on a new shore. “To be archaeologically visible, you need thousands of people,” says Bednarik. Even if small animals like monkeys crossed the Wallace line accidentally, it does not follow that humans did so too. And although an accidental raft could carry dozens of small monkeys, it is hard to imagine one able to transport hundreds of people. This would explain the absence – elephants aside – of large Eurasian animals on the far side of the Wallace line, and lends support to the idea that ancient humans crossed it deliberately.

Even so, most archaeologists are adamant that the ancient mariner theory is wrong. There may be a simple reason for their intransigence. Bednarik reasoned that ancient humans would have built rafts out of bamboo, which is plentiful in South-East Asia, but his experiments revealed this was no simple task. Freshly felled bamboo is relatively easy to cut and carve with stone tools, but that becomes very difficult once it dries. On the other hand, only several months of careful drying will give bamboo the necessary buoyancy.

The conclusion? Early humans wouldn’t have cobbled rafts together on impulse. Building a seaworthy vessel took months of planning, suggesting it was impossible without advanced communication skills. Indeed, earlier this year, the linguist Daniel Everett at Bentley University in Massachusetts used the controversial evidence for ancient seafaring to argue that species like H. erectus must have had abstract language. What’s more, Bednarik’s voyages show that failure, and potentially death, would have been close companions of the ancient mariners’ attempts. He thinks they would have needed persuasive arguments to convince others to commit to such journeys.

Experimental voyages


This is perhaps the real source of controversy, because many archaeologists argue that sophisticated modern features – including language – appeared very recently. They say it may be unique to our species, or even to a subpopulation of H. sapiens that appeared within the past 100,000 years or so in Africa. Thomas Leppard at the University of Cambridge is one of the most vocal critics of the ancient mariners idea, largely because of this language issue. He was unimpressed by Everett’s claim.

On one level, the debate on ancient mariners and their language skills seems to be locked in stalemate. “Arguments about language have been going on in anthropology and archaeology for more than a century,” says Runnels. “I do not believe that any hominin lacked language ability. Hell, the birds and the elephants and the dolphins talk to each other and so do we.” But it is just possible that new discoveries could lead to a resolution.

Leppard is particularly interested in the fact that the human bones found on Flores – including “Flo”, the famous hobbit skeleton that stands little more than a metre tall – all seem to belong to unusually small individuals. Animals tend to evolve into new species with unusual body sizes when they arrive on islands, but only if the populations are genetically isolated from mainland ones. “If whichever hominin got to Flores was sailing back and forth on a whim, I do not see how gene flow could have been restricted such that speciation could occur,” he says.

Comment: There are other possibilities that may have brought about this selection process.

“Building a seaworthy raft required months of planning – and language”

As ancient DNA studies continue to throw new light on the prehistoric world, they could reveal whether populations on opposite sides of narrow seas were in genetic contact. For instance, earlier this year a study suggested there was limited contact 15,000 years ago between humans in Morocco and the populations a few tens of kilometres to the north across the Strait of Gibraltar.

Comment: Which is just before the suggested time of the Younger Dryas Impact: Of Flash Frozen Mammoths and Cosmic Catastrophes

If, on the other hand, ancient humans really have been building rafts for the best part of a million years, we can expect archaeologists to dig up signs of human activity in places and at times that just don’t fit with expectations.

One such discovery was announced last year. At a site in California, researchers found the 130,000-year-old carcass of a mastodon alongside what they claimed were simple stone tools. If someone butchered the animal, they did so comfortably 100,000 years before most researchers think humans reached the New World. Many archaeologists quickly dismissed the Californian evidence. Both van den Bergh and Runnels remain open-minded. It is worth remembering that the simple stone tools found on Flores back in the 1970s were also dismissed and ignored for decades, but aren’t any longer.

“Clearly we need to be guided by the evidence,” says Runnels. “But if we don’t ask questions – for instance, did early hominins reach California by 130,000 years ago? – and test the hypotheses that result from them, we cannot get answers.”

This article appeared in print under the headline “Stone Age sailors”

Source Article from https://www.sott.net/article/388503-Have-humans-been-sailing-the-seas-for-a-million-years

PolitiFact Rules It’s ‘True’ That Democrats Are Near ‘Their Lowest Representation’ in 100 Years

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Source Article from https://www.newsbusters.org/blogs/nb/tim-graham/2018/06/18/politifact-rules-its-true-democrats-are-near-their-lowest

MSNBC Wrongly Suggests Ohio Purges Voters After Two Years of Nonvoting

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It’s Not New: Pictures Show The Fight Against Vaccines Is Well Over 100 Years Old

  • The Facts:

    Millions are diagnosed with depression every year, and people can begin feeling better without medication by increasing serotonin levels in the brain. Some lifestyle changes and food adjustments can help solve this.

  • Reflect On:

    Is your diet truly helping you feel good? We sometimes think ‘we only live once, I should eat what I want!’ but how do you want to feel while you’re alive: Vital or foggy?

As defined by psychologists, a person has a major depressive episode when he or she has symptoms of major depressive disorder, including depressed mood or feelings of emptiness, hopelessness or irritability, that last for two weeks or more.  And, according to the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS), the number of people diagnosed with depression has increased by 450% since 1987.

It is often recommended that we start taking a medication to reduce symptoms. However, medication often comes with sometimes dangerous side-effects. Here are some simple ways to feel happier without needing to take a pill.

1. Get Enough Vitamin B6

Foods like spinach, turnip greens, garlic, cauliflower, mustard greens, celery, and non-factory farmed fish (especially tuna, halibut, salmon, cod and snapper) can be great sources.

2. Eat Brain Boosting Seed Grains Instead of Wheat

This includes: Amaranth, buckwheat, millet and quinoa are seeds with grain-like taste and properties. These are healthy, high-protein carbohydrates and small amounts of the right carbohydrates are critical to boosting serotonin.

Not only will you improve your mood, you will Sleep better too. A nice dose of serotonin in the early evening will help you sleep better at night.

These grain-like seeds also provide important B vitamins. As just mentioned B vitamins play a critical role in brain health and in the manufacture of all your neurotransmitters including serotonin. Vitamins B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin) and B6 (pyridoxine) as well as vitamin D, folic acid and selenium plus calcium, and magnesium are needed to make serotonin.

For protein meals: focus on digestion and food combining – Eating foods that are high in protein – and specifically have a higher percentage of tryptophan (like sunflower seeds and pumpkin seeds), will provide much-needed tryptophan, the precursor to serotonin. But beware: because research shows that eating protein with carbohydrates actually works against your ability to make serotonin. 

Good to know: Plant-based protein helps to create more serotonin than animal protein does.

To boost your mood and immunity naturally, protein and probiotics – is the delicious natural answer!

3. Include Fermented Food & Drinks In Your Diet

Fermented foods and drinks greatly assist in digestion and assimilation of all the important nutrients you need for serotonin. Additionally, they boost the nutrients in your food by at least a hundredfold.

4. Get Massages & Other Forms of Body Work

We’ve heard about the healing power of touch, but now research backs it up! A study conducted by the Touch Research Institutes at the University of Miami School of Medicine shows that massage increases serotonin by 28% and decreases cortisol (the stress hormone) by 31%.

5. Have Fun in the Sun

Early morning sunlight is more intense and this can boost your body’s production of melatonin in the evening. Serotonin converts to melatonin for a great night’s sleep. Getting outside for a 20-minute walk in the early morning sunlight can boost your mood and improve your sleep!

6. Remove Toxins From Your Health That Interfere With Brain Health

Eat foods like dandelion and citrus fruit to help detox daily. Detoxing is about increasing the effectiveness of your detox pathways so unnecessary toxins don’t get stuck in your body. Although the medical field keeps saying detoxing is a myth, lack of proper detoxing is a common challenge.

7. Reduce Stress

Prolonged physical or emotional stress produce adrenaline and cortisol, which interfere with serotonin. Shifting your lifestyle and adding more relaxation into your week can make a huge difference. Focus on Emotional Healing – Reducing stress and focusing on spending more time relaxing is a first step to boosting serotonin. You can take this even further by taking action in key areas to remove negative emotions like fear, guilt and anger. Meditate & do yoga!

8. Exercise

A comprehensive review of the relation between exercise and mood concluded that antidepressant and anxiolytic effects have been clearly demonstrated. In the United Kingdom the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, which works on behalf of the National Health Service and makes recommendations on treatments according to the best available evidence, has published a guide on the treatment of depression.

9. Eliminate Processed Sugar (or at least drastically reduce it)

If you have low serotonin, you may have intense cravings for sugar. This is your body’s way of trying to increase serotonin because eating sugar produces insulin, which helps tryptophan go into your brain. However, too much sugar can eventually cause addiction to sugar, insulin resistance, hypoglycemia and type 2 diabetes.

Instead, satisfy your sweet tooth in a healthy way with pure maple syrup, coconut sugar or pure honey.

10. Give More Hugs, Love More & Fear Less

Human connection, living in the heart, being connected to self. All of these things are natural to us and yet we have become quite disconnected from it all in our modern world.

Listen to CE Podcast episode Treating Autism Naturally w/ Jennifer Kozek

To receive more info on how you and your family can overcome ADHD, apraxia, anxiety and more without medication SIGN UP HERE or purchase my book Healing Without Hurting.

Get Your FREE In Depth Numerology Reading

Your life path number can tell you A LOT about you.

With the ancient science of Numerology you can find out accurate and revealing information just from your name and birth date.

Get your free numerology reading and learn more about how you can use numerology in your life to find out more about your path and journey. Get Your free reading.

Source Article from http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Collective-evolution/~3/ldOIo6TbYnk/

Old Video Surfaces, Shows Trump Was Prepping for NK Nearly 20 Years Ago

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Source Article from https://theuglytruth.wordpress.com/2018/06/15/old-video-surfaces-shows-trump-was-prepping-for-nk-nearly-20-years-ago/

India may smash its 175 GW renewables target several years early

Way back in 2014, Zach Shahan reported that India was upping its renewable energy ambitions “from 22 gigawatts by 2022 to 100 gigawatts by 2019”.

It later revised those figured upwards even further.

As it stands, India is now officially aiming to reach 175 gigawatts of installed renewable energy capacity by 2022, but according to Reuters—which is reporting on comments made by power minister R. K. Singh—the country looks set to blow through that goal several years early and may even achieve 225 gigawatts by that date.

That’s right: 225 gigawatts of clean, renewable energy when less than a decade ago the official target was just 22 gigawatts. Once again, we’re seeing a pattern in renewable energy adoption and evolution—targets which were once thought of as ambitious are proving to be decidedly conservative.

From corporate giants like Lego achieving their 100% renewable energy goals several years early, to the offshore wind industry smashing cost reduction goals far sooner than anyone anticipated, I’m reminded that official targets and projections are useful for setting the course of travel—but might not be the best metric to make long-term planning or investment decisions by.

Source Article from https://www.treehugger.com/renewable-energy/india-may-smash-its-175-gw-renewables-target-several-years-early.html

El Paso County in Colorado sees worst overnight hailstorm in more than 20 years



Several homeowners in southern Colorado woke up Wednesday to extensive hail damage. Based on statistics from the National Weather Service (NWS), it was the strongest overnight hail storm in El Paso County in more than 20 years.

The strong storm tore through the county, with much of the impact in Fountain. Hail in the area was reported as large as 3 inches. According to NWS, El Paso County has not seen hail more than 2 inches during the overnight hours since 1995.

11 News first warned of the severe storm. After it ended, several viewers shared photos and videos of broken glass from their homes and shattered car windows. One woman showed the hail that broke through her windows in her new home, sending hail throughout her living room.

We’ve got damage to the siding,” said homeowner Valorie Munoz. “There’s big holes all over here, all throughout the sides. We’ve got broken windows we’ve got this broken one here.”

“It was just so loud we couldn’t even hear each other talk,” Munoz continued. “I’ve never seen anything like it in my life.”

While the storm was over by early Wednesday morning, the rest of the day still has chances for spotty, isolated storms.

Source Article from https://www.sott.net/article/388029-El-Paso-County-in-Colorado-sees-worst-overnight-hailstorm-in-more-than-20-years

Lady Gaga’s ‘The Fame’ turns 10 years old in 2018 ahead of ‘A Star Is Born’ remake

Ten years ago, the world was introduced to an aspiring pop star that would go on to become a pop culture icon. Stefani Germanotta, known by her stage name Lady Gaga, had a chance to jet to LA to record “Just Dance,” a song that was created in 15 minutes and would soon take the world by storm as mainstream pop phased into dance and powerpop. That song was the lead single to Gaga’s debut album The Fame, which would catapult on the charts when second single “Poker Face,” a radio throttling No. 1, turned into a worldwide hit. On August 19, 2008, The Fame was released and eventually, pop music would never be the same. Coincidentally, Gaga’s 10 year anniversary arrives just before the release of her remake of the musical film “A Star Is Born” on Oct. 5, 2018.

Gaga had always wanted to be a star since she was a young age. She was exposed to greats like Bruce Springsteen, Whitney Houston, Liza Minnelli; she loved music and she loved the arts. Gaga wanted to be in the limelight with everyone screaming her name. As a young lady, she worked hard to achieve that goal out of New York City – playing clubs and trying to get her music exposed. She had one shot to go out to L.A. and cut a track and needless to say, she succeeded.

The Fame became Gaga’s first album and visualizes her love of fame and touches on money, sex, love, drugs and sexual identity. Even without having money or fame, you can still feel like a million dollars and her debut record gave listeners a chance to feel a certain way about themselves – inner fame that they can exude to the world. Another thing Gaga felt was missing from pop was imagery to go along with the artist and the music – a trait she would go on to become famous for. The record focuses on electro and dance pop as radio shifted gears sonically.

When Lady Gaga flew out to L.A., she teamed up with producer RedOne and in 10 minutes wrote the song “Just Dance” which would go on to become her first single. The carefree song hit No. 1 around the world and became one of the best singles of all time selling over 10 million copies. Her follow up, “Poker Face,” put her on the scene as a bonafide pop-star. The song about bisexuality was a tribute to her boyfriends and would go on to top the charts in over 20 countries in 2009. By year’s end, “Poker Face” was the best-selling single of the year across the globe selling 9.5 million in sales. It now has sold over 14 million copies also becoming one of the best-selling singles in music history. In 2015, Gaga became the first artist in the United States to cross 7 million digital copies sold for both “Just Dance” and “Poker Face.”

By the time “Poker Face” had run its course, Lady Gaga became a household name for not only her catchy anthems but her sometimes chaotic fashion. Her song “Eh, Eh (Nothing Else I Can Say)” was released in Australia, New Zealand and parts of Europe while North America and Europe also saw “LoveGame” as a single. That track had several hard hitting remixes including one that featured Marilyn Manson. “Paparazzi” would serve as the final single from the album and is still to this day played on Hot AC radio stations.

The Fame has sold 4.79 million copies in the U.S. and when equivalent units are included (streams of songs, track downloads), the album has reached nearly 9 million units. The album earned Gaga her very first Grammy Awards for Best Electronic/Dance Album and Best Dance Recording for “Poker Face.” It would also be nominated for Album of the Year with “Poker Face” having noms in Song of the Year and Record of the Year.

Following her success of The Fame in 2009, Gaga recorded and released The Fame Monster, the darker side of fame. It was initially intended to be included as a re-release but it was then decided to release it as a deluxe edition of The Fame and as a standalone EP. That was due largely to the fact it would be costly for fans and the two sets were conceptually different. Collectively with the reissue, The Fame has sold over 15 million copies worldwide.

Listen to the original release of The Fame below.

Related: Lady Gaga gets Vevo certified with 10 videos surpassing 100 million views each

Source Article from https://m.axs.com/lady-gaga-s-the-fame-turns-10-years-old-in-2018-ahead-of-a-star-is-bor-131010

Chloe Ayling’s kidnapper jailed for 16 years after drugging and abducting glamor model

Herba, who maintains his innocence and has already confirmed that he will appeal the sentence, was ordered to pay £60,000 ($80,300) damages to Ayling.

The accused, who wore a grey hoodie and jeans in court, was sentenced to 16 years for drugging and kidnapping the mum-of-one. Ayling was lured to a Milan address on the pretext of a bogus modelling job. She was then held hostage for six days at a farmhouse before being released at the British consulate in Milan.

Polish-born Herba, however, insists that the kidnapping was a set-up so the aspiring glamor model could star on reality TV and boost followers of her paid-for profile, through which she sold “spicy” photographs of herself for cash. “She wanted to be a model and she wanted to go on reality TV,” he said.

“She said she wanted to raise her profile and that it would be useful to her career to create a scandal. She needed help and so I decided to help her. She had a site where if you paid money you could see spicy photographs.

“She has no money so I said I would help her. I hoped that at the end she would remember me and we could be together. I loved her,” said Herba.

Prosecutor Paolo Storari told the court that Herba was a fantasist, and had initially claimed to be an “FBI operative and a high-level hitman.”

“He is nothing of the sort,” Storari said. “He is a fantasist with narcissistic tendencies. Let’s not forget Chloe Ayling was put in a hold-all and kept in the boot of a car for five hours and could have died.

“He treated Chloe not as a person but a thing. She could have been allergic to ketamine, she could have suffered from claustrophobia. She could have died,” he said.

Storari closed his speech by asking the court to sentence Herba to 16 years in jail and boot him out when he is eventually released.

Ayling’s lawyer Francecso Pesce said that the now-LA-based model was “terrified by what happened.” He added: “Yes, she was seen hand-in-hand with him shopping but she was in fear of her life and feared for her family,” he said.

Pesce also ended his closing address to the court by asking them to sentence Herba to 16 years in jail, and to kick him out of Italy when he is eventually released. Ayling did not travel to Milan for the hearing.

Herba’s lawyer Katia Kowlalovska confirmed that their team would launch an appeal against the ruling. “I hope to use evidence… which I was unable to produce at this trial,” she said. “Namely the fact that Chloe’s version when she was first questioned is very different to what she said later.

“When I told him the sentence, he said he wanted to definitely go to appeal. He was hopeful that the court would have been lenient to him as he did not harm her and didn’t collect any ransom,” she told The Sun.

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Source Article from https://www.rt.com/uk/429404-chloe-ayling-jail-model/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=RSS