3500 year old pipe reveals Americans were smoking tobacco much earlier than previously thought

Scientists found 3500-year-old traces of nicotine inside this limestone pipe.

    

In the late 1930s, archaeologists in northern Alabama rushed to excavate a now-submerged Native American site at the confluence of the Flint and Tennessee rivers, racing the rising tide brought on by the newly built Guntersville Dam. Dozens of artifacts were discovered, then sealed up in paper bags and kept at the Alabama State Repository. There they gathered dust until 70 years later, when a team of archaeologists and chemists came looking for a particular item noted in the repository catalog: FS74, an engraved smoking pipe or “medicine tube,” carved from limestone.

With the support of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, the researchers had been examining ancient Native American pipes for years, using a chemical analysis technique called mass spectrometry to look for traces of plant material left behind. Their hunt, which was meant to shed light on the religious and ritualistic history of smoking, had already yielded tobacco and jimsonweed residue in pipes dating back a few hundred years.

curing tobacco

    

But when they tested FS74, they hit the jackpot. The team found clear traces of nicotine, a tell-tale compound within tobacco, in residue ringing the inside of the pipe. Animal bones found alongside the pipe were dated to between 1685 and 1530 B.C.E., indicating the pipe is the earliest evidence yet of tobacco smoking in North America, the researchers report today in the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports

That suggests the band of early Native Americans who lived here were growing and smoking tobacco at least 1000 years earlier than previously thought-around the same time they were first domesticating food crops like sunflower and squash. The findings raise the possibility that the plants grown for ritual use might have played an important role in the region’s early forays into agriculture.

Source Article from https://www.sott.net/article/388412-3500-year-old-pipe-reveals-Americans-were-smoking-tobacco-much-earlier-than-previously-thought

Another inconvenient truth: Antarctica’s ice sheet is more durable than we thought

Mt. Erebus

    

On the same day that WaPo and other alarmist media outlets were wailing about a small loss in Antarctic ice balance, another study came out. This study found that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet has survived higher temperatures than we are experiencing now.

From PM:

Summary:

  • Scientists studied the Pliocene epoch, which happened a few million years ago.
  • Temperatures were a little warmer then, so the epoch could be a good preview of a warmer Earth.
  • They found Antarctic ice was more prevalent back then than we’d believed.

One of the biggest potential dangers of increasing climate change is sea level rise caused by the melting of the polar ice caps. As our planet heats up, large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica will melt, potentially triggering several feet of increased sea level rise. If the entire Antarctic ice sheet melts into the ocean, it could lead to dozens of feet of sea level rise, likely enough to wipe out entire cities.

Of course, it’s important to remember that ice sheets are complex and predicting how they will react is difficult – there’s a wide range of possibilities. Perhaps the best way for scientists to predict how ice sheets will behave in the future is by learning how they behaved in the past, so one group of scientists traveled to the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to learn its history.

Specifically, the researchers were interested in what happened to the ice sheet during the Pliocene epoch, the geologic period from about 5.4 million years ago to around 2.5 million. During the Pliocene, global temperatures were a few degrees warmer than they are today, which means this era is a good model for what our world might look like in a few decades, if climate change remains unchecked.

To determine just what happened to the ice sheet during this period, the researchers drilled deep into the rock beneath it. The scientists were looking for samples of certain isotopes, beryllium-10 and aluminum-26. These particular isotopes are created from the impact of cosmic rays from space. When these cosmic rays hit the atoms in the soil, they trigger atomic reactions that produce these isotopes.

The key fact here is that cosmic rays can’t penetrate ice. If there was ice over the ground during the Pliocene, the cosmic rays wouldn’t have reached the ground and these isotopes shouldn’t be present in the soil. But if the ice sheet melted significantly, the researchers would find higher levels of these isotopes.

“Based on this evidence from the Pliocene, today’s current carbon dioxide levels are not enough to destabilize the land-based ice on the Antarctic continent,” said study author Jeremy Shakun.

Full story here

Source Article from https://www.sott.net/article/388349-Another-inconvenient-truth-Antarcticas-ice-sheet-is-more-durable-than-we-thought

No, the carbon footprint of travel is not four times as big as we thought

A new study looks at the full carbon impact of travel, but it is probably being misinterpreted.

A new study, The carbon footprint of global tourism, is causing a stir, with news sources writing headlines like Global tourism’s carbon footprint is four times bigger than thought, study says or Tourism’s carbon impact three times larger than estimated. They all report that the study claims tourism accounts for 8 percent of carbon emissions, but that “previous estimates of the impact of all this travel on carbon suggested that tourism accounted for 2.5-3% of emissions.” Almost every story is illustrated with a photo of airplanes.

TreeHugger has been on this case for a while, starting with George Monbiot’s Flying is Dying, when he noted that “If we want to stop the planet from cooking, we will simply have to stop traveling at the kind of speeds that planes permit.” That’s why a lot of people have given it up and others (like me) buy offsets to assuage their guilt.

But this study doesn’t just look at the impact of the flying; it looks at the entire picture of tourism, including what people do when they get to where they are going. They look at the carbon footprint of what happens when you get off the plane: getting around, staying at a hotel, buying food in restaurants and shopping. They look at the supply chains getting all this stuff to where the tourist is visiting.

It adds up to a lot of carbon, and as the world gets richer, more people are doing it. But in general, as people get richer, their carbon footprint increases whether they are traveling or not. And that is what I think is so confusing about this report; it is not as much about the carbon footprint of travel as it is the carbon footprint of living, with some transportation thrown in.

The emissions from road transport are larger than those from air transport. The emissions from buying goods is almost as high as flying. The agriculture to make the food, combined with the food service and food is almost as high. In fact when you total them up, the stuff of living while traveling is just about as much as the traveling itself.

And that is the biggest issue here; wherever people are, they gotta eat, they gotta sleep. Where people get richer, they eat more and spend more. Yet, the authors of the study note (my emphasis):

It could be argued that food, shopping and ground transport be counted net of what tourists would have eaten, purchased or traveled had they stayed at home. If only additional emissions were counted with reference to a stay-home scenario, air travel may well come out as the dominant emissions component. We do not attempt to quantify additionality for a number of reasons, but most importantly because food, shopping and transport by international visitors increase the carbon footprint of destinations, as opposed to the carbon foot-prints of the visitors’ home country. These activities matter for international embodied carbon transfers.

Carbon Movements© Blue is international travel; yellow is for domestic holidays.

In other words, this is more about carbon transfers than it is about consumption and carbon generation. You do learn interesting things, watching how carbon takes a vacation; Americans and Chinese tend to stay in their own countries while Canadians and Mexicans visit the States a lot. In fact Canada, with a tenth the population of the USA, has more traveling carbon in total that all of the USA. But so what? My carbon footprint may be higher when I travel because I eat out more often, but I also walk, bike or take transit and don’t use a car. I may shop for stuff, but I do that at home too.

Should we be flying all over the place? Of course not. Eric Holthaus, Grist’s meteorologist, gave up flying in 2014 and tells the Christian Science Monitor that he is taking local trips instead.

“What we’re talking about is a change in culture, getting happiness from more local travel, or slower travel,” Holthaus says. A jet-setting culture in which people travel around the globe for a few days or a week is “not compatible with a future that is livable.”

He is right. More people are flying, new and bigger airports are being built, and travel is having a bigger footprint as people get richer. But this study is, I think, being misinterpreted. CO2 doesn’t recognize borders, but this study seems to be all about them.

The carbon footprint of travel is not three or four times as big as we thought; we are just taking our carbon with us. You have to subtract the stuff of daily life.

On sister site MNN.com, Starre Vartan looks at this study and concludes that when we travel, we can still do our best to reduce our carbon footprint once we are there, all of which are sensible and help.

What are the solutions to reducing impact if you love to travel? Vacationing closer to home is one simple way to cut emissions. (Let’s bring back the summer lake vacation!) You can always refuse housekeeping when you stay at hotels, or better yet, seek out smaller, family-run, eco-friendly accommodations. Use public transportation instead of renting a car, and pack light.

Source Article from https://www.treehugger.com/travel/no-carbon-footprint-travel-not-four-times-big-we-thought.html

‘We view them as of they were Donkeys’–What Israel’s First Ruling Party Thought About Palestinians

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Source Article from https://theuglytruth.wordpress.com/2018/05/01/we-view-them-as-of-they-were-donkeys-what-israels-first-ruling-party-thought-about-palestinians/

Dr. Duke and Mark Collett on Joogle and Faceberg’s Orwellian thought policing

Dr. Duke and Mark Collett on Joogle and Faceberg’s Orwellian thought policing

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Today Dr. Duke had British author and activist Mark Collett as his guest for the hour. They talked about the increasingly draconian thought policing of social media by Jewish-run monopolistic megafirms like Google and Facebook.

Then Dr. Duke handed the show to Dr. Slattery, who interviewed Mr. Collett about his latest video concerning the skyrocketing murder rate in London, which has now surpassed that of New York despite Britain’s almost complete ban on firearms.

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Source Article from https://davidduke.com/dr-duke-and-mark-collett-on-joogle-and-facebergs-orwellian-thought-policing/

THOUGHT POLICE: pages run by disinfo trolls YouTube to start “correcting” controversial videos with “facts” from discredited Wikipedia

Image: THOUGHT POLICE: YouTube to start “correcting” controversial videos with “facts” from discredited Wikipedia pages run by disinfo trolls

(Natural News) In the latest assault on the freedom to think for yourself, YouTube CEO Susan Wojcicki has announced that YouTube will begin “correcting” controversial videos with “facts” from Wikipedia, an utterly discredited disinfo propaganda website run by pharma trolls who routinely demonize holistic medicine.

“Jimmy Wales and his army of liberal trolls will determine what’s truth and anything which goes too far in countering the narrative will be banned or censored,” warns Information Liberation. Wales, of course, is the former porn king who launched Wikipedia as a thought control “Ministry of Truth” to push big pharma quack science and pro-Monsanto propaganda.

Now, YouTube CEO Wojcicki believes that video content creators who dare mention “conspiracy” topics such as mercury in vaccines, chemtrails or the globalist depopulation agenda must be “corrected” with Wikipedia propaganda. The thought police are hard at work at YouTube, banning or censoring all the videos they don’t want you to see.

The new Wikipedia “corrections” will begin appearing on YouTube videos in the next two weeks, Wojcicki said in a SXSW speech. Notice her doublespeak as she explains how this is going to work:

“When there are videos that are focused around something that’s a conspiracy — and we’re using a list of well-known internet conspiracies from Wikipedia — then we will show a companion unit of information from Wikipedia showing that here is information about the event…”

“Companion” unit of information? What she means is that the YouTube thought police will “correct” the video to make sure the techno-dictatorship properly indoctrinates the minds of viewers with the official (false) narrative on everything. No independent thinking will be allowed on any subject that matters — climate change, the federal reserve, vaccines or science — without being intercepted and “corrected” by YouTube’s thought control monitors.

Yes, George Orwell’s 1984 has arrived, and it’s called “YouTube.” (Related: Read why I’m launching Real.Video as the answer to YouTube censorship.)

YouTube rapidly becoming a Communist China-inspired thought control platform

This announcement by the propagandist-in-chief Susan Wojcicki — who is rapidly becoming the Joseph Goebbels of the internet — reveals just how quickly YouTube is following in the footsteps of Communist China to control the perceptions and thoughts of its users. All the so-called “conspiracy theories” that will be “corrected” by YouTube, of course, are determined by radical left-wing indoctrination overlords who dominate the tech platforms. To these totalitarian lunatics, the idea that the Russians stole the 2016 election is a “fact,” but the idea that geoengineering experiments are being run to alter the atmosphere is a “conspiracy theory” (even though it’s now openly admitted by science-based universities such as MIT).

Read Geoengineering.news to see an expanding collection of stories on how geoengineering is now openly admitted by scientists. In fact, they’re claiming it’s necessary to “save the planet.”

Remember the real definition of a “conspiracy theory:” it’s anything the establishment doesn’t want you to know. By simply labeling real agendas and nefarious social engineering nothing but “conspiracy theories,” the tech gatekeepers can justify censoring all videos, articles or websites that mention them. Remember when the entire media said that Hillary Clinton’s neurological problems were a conspiracy theory? Or how about all those years in which anyone who accurately stated that your TVs were spying on you was also deemed a kook? Now, it’s common knowledge. See this article: Yes, your smart TV really is spying on you: Leaked docs reveal CIA secretly turned Samsung TVs into microphones that spy on your conversations.

Despite the inescapable truth on these matters (and many more), according to the thought control police at YouTube and Wikipedia, chemtrails are a “conspiracy theory” that needs to be corrected, just to make sure nobody actually believes it’s happening (even though it is).

This move by YouTube smacks of total desperation, and it follows in the footsteps of YouTube outright banning the entire Health Ranger channel in a last-ditch effort to silence rising voices that are warning humanity about the very same mind control agenda being demonstrated every day by YouTube itself.

Quite literally, YouTube will ban accounts by claiming those content creators are promoting “conspiracy theories” that claim YouTube is censoring accounts. Seriously, this is how insane things have become now as the techno-dictatorships are running wild, crushing not just the freedom to speak, but also the freedom to think.

This brazen move by YouTube demonstrates how dangerous Google and YouTube have become to modern society, functioning as biased censors of independent news, information and independent science. This is why YouTube, Google, Facebook and Twitter must be stopped. They must be aggressively regulated to halt their selective censorship agendas that specifically target independent journalism, independent science and real investigations into the creeping totalitarianism now unfolding all around us.

Visit Real.Video to learn more about our upcoming alternative to YouTube. It may launch as soon as this summer.

Also check out Censorship.news for daily news updates on the accelerating censorship of free speech.

 

Source Article from http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/DaveHodges-TheCommonSenseShow/~3/Ye9dGUAYo2A/

Who Would Have Thought San Francisco Bay Would Become Ft. Sumter?

An elevated starboard view of the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS ENTERPRISE (CVN 65) passing under the Golden Gate Bridge during Fleet Week activities.

 

President Trump is spitting in the face of the globalists and their minions who are trying to bring down the United States beginning with the establishment of an independent California who is seeking to become an independent country under the protection of the United Nation.

As I have covered before, If California were to become its own nation 25 percent of the retail of this country would be gone and a severe national food shortage could commence. As appealing as a CALEXIT might be, it would ultimately prove catastrophic to the longevity of the nation and the health and well-being of the people.

This week President Trump is rubbing salt in the wound of the liberals who are running California state government. He is visiting San Diego to unveil the beginning of the border wall.  In typical Trump fashion, he is waving a red cape in the face of the globalists.

In Part One of this series, I clearly laid out the battle lines for the coming showdown in California. To quickly summarize, the forces seeking a California departure from the Union are nefarious and numerous. The range from the drug cartels, to ISIS, to MS-13 (ie the world’s most dangerous gang who double as political assassins), the Democratic Party of California, Governor Jerry Brown, China, a notorious Japanese crime family, Mexico, the United Nations, former key members of the Obama administration (eg Holder and Lynch) and George Soros along with his vast empire of destructive organizations. The other side consists of Americans from every background who support the continuation of America as a strong and viable message and the rule of law as expressed under the constitution.

The goal of the CALEXIT leadership, the real leadership, not the foot soldiers (ie MS-13), is the destruction of the United States as a prelude to the establishment of global governance and economic domination (ie total tyranny).

Sometimes it is more important to notice what someone is NOT saying and doing as opposed to noting the visible pattern of their speech and actions.

In the case of the globalists, I fully expected a tremendous backlash of harsh criticism from the leftist trolls that are paid to harass people like me. However, a funny thing happened on the way to the message boards and the email, there were no visible trolls. The silence was indeed eerie. What would account for the silence, the Deep State globalists are in full retreat and they are stunned, as Paul Preston related to me last night, the New California people, and undoubtedly George Soros, were taken back by the detail presented in Part One.

Mr. Magoo, as I refer to Attorney General Jeff Sessions, is actually doing something. He has pledged to go after any California mayor, with the full force of his office if they dare to defy constitutionally based authority as carried out by the federal government. In other words, he has put every California mayor on notice.

You read the subtitle correctly. Jeff Sessions will be replaced in the near future by Trey Gowdy according to Paul Preston via his insider sources. And the people said, “it’s about time and Amen!”

Gowdy will provide the bulldog mentality that Trump will need to carry out the mandate to Make America Great Again and to bring the California rebels to justice.

As stated in Part One, Paul Preston is one of the primary leaders in the New California movement. This has opened up a new world of insider contacts for Preston. The following paragraphs reflect what Paul Preston has learned and has subsequently related to me. If any of the readers are wondering if I have to censor anything, the answer is yes and it is in the name of protecting sources. However, the main ideas behind what is going will appear in sufficient detail in order to convey the seriousness of the situation. Also, if one is wondering on the motivation for the New California people to have me convey the conglomeration of these events, they are hopeful that we can change the course of what is coming and to some degree, that has already occurred. Preston believes that when the chaos ensued, were 3-4 months away from UN intervention with foreign troops, many of whom have already been pre-positioned in this country.

Whoever would have thought that San Fancisco Bay would become Ft. Sumter? That is exactly what is happening. The New California leadership has been told that a carrier is headed to California and then policing actions will commence. Stay tuned, there will be a Part 3.

 

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Teacher Says FL Shooter Was in Full Body Armor, Face Mask, and She Thought He Was a Cop

body armorbody armor

Parkland, Florida – A teacher at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School said she encountered the man who reportedly shot and killed 17 people, and she initially believed he was a police officer, based on the body armor he was wearing and the unidentifiable firearm he was shooting in her direction.

Stacy Lippel, a creative writing teacher at the school, told Good Morning America that the Valentine’s Day rampage began with a fire drill, which forced all of her students out of the classroom and into the hall. Within seconds, gunshots rang out, and as students began panicking and screaming, she said she ushered them back into her classroom.

“I don’t know how many kids were in there, but I was pulling them and getting them in, and shouting at them to get in the room, and then I suddenly saw the shooter about 20 feet from me, standing at the end of the hallway actively shooting down the hallway,” Lippel said. “Just a barrage of bullets and I’m staring at him thinking ‘Why are the police here? This is strange,’ because he’s in full metal garb, helmet, face mask, bulletproof armor, shooting this rifle that I’ve never seen before.”

Other reports have claimed that suspected gunman Nikolas Cruz was wearing body armor at the time of the shooting. CNN reported that Cruz was a member of a group chat on Instagram where, in addition to sharing details about the firearms he owned, making racist comments and sharing his desire to commit mass murder, he also said he purchased body armor.

In one message, Cruz wrote, “Guys I got paid 330. I am buying body armor.” He then posted receipts that documented his purchase and asked the group if it was legal to wear body armor in school. When a member asked why he wanted to know, Cruz replied, “School shooters.”

This was far from the first time Cruz warned that he planned to commit mass murder or to carry out a school shooting. He spelled it out clearly on YouTube, leaving comments that said “I’m going to be a professional school shooter,” that he was “going to kill law enforcement one day.” Yet despite multiple credible reports to the FBI and at least 20 calls to local police that warned of death threats from Cruz, law enforcement did nothing to attempt to prevent the shooting.

On the day that Stoneman Douglas was attacked, Stacy Lippel told GMA that she saw the shooter and then quickly closed her classroom door, while urging her fellow teacher, Scott Beigel, to close his door as well.

“He couldn’t see the shooter, but I had a good visual of him, which is why I told him to shut his door now,” Lippel said. “I heard him shoot a barrage of bullets into Mr. Beigel’s room. And then he came to my room and shot four or five shots into my room, breaking the glass of my door.”

Scott Beigel was one of the 17 people killed in the attack. Even though the shooter was only near her classroom for moments before he continued his rampage down the hall, Lippel said that she and her students stayed huddled in the room. “I never really knew when he left because we all thought he was still here,” she said.

Lippel said that it took nearly an hour for police to finally enter the hallway and to begin assessing the wounded students and teachers. She also noted that because the shooter was wearing an outfit that made him look like a member of the SWAT team, she was hesitant to let the officers into her classroom.

“It was so quiet, and then all of a sudden I hear helicopters outside far, far in the distance … Police officers far, far in the distance. Kids were screaming in the hallway for help,” Lippel said. “We’re trained not to let anybody in the room, and I would say a good 45 minutes went by, maybe an hour, and then we heard the SWAT team come on the floor, but I still didn’t trust that it was them, because they were banging on the doors, ‘Police! Let us in,’ and no one got up.”

The latest details describing the shooter raise significant questions about the timeline of the shooting. According to a report from the Sun Sentinel, Cruz was picked up by an Uber at 2:06 p.m. and then dropped him off at the school at 2:19 p.m. He then entered the freshman building at 2:21 p.m.

The shooting reportedly lasted 7 minutes, which included enough time for a freshman student named Chris McKenna to find Cruz loading his rifle, and then to flee to get help when Cruz told him, “things are gonna start getting messy.”

The school confirmed that Cruz exited the building at 2:28 p.m. and blended in with other students who were fleeing campus. Given that he may have set off more warning signs if he had been fully clothed in body armor when he was riding in an Uber or entering the school, the timeline gives him just 7 minutes to load his rifle, put on his body armor, shoot 31 people, discard the gun and the body armor and then exit the building.

The timeline comes in addition to comments from other students claiming that they believed there were multiple shooters. Student Alexa Miednik even said she had a conversation with Cruz while she was evacuating the school, and she heard additional gunshots in the background.

During that time period, while the gunman was allowed to roam freely about the school building, at least four armed police officers cowered outside. The school resource officer, who could have taken out the attacker within minutes, and the three officers from the Broward County Sheriff’s department who were the first to arrive at the scene, stayed outside and waited for reinforcements, while innocent children died inside.

Source Article from http://thefreethoughtproject.com/teacher-says-fl-shooter-full-body-armor-face-mask-thought-cop/

Even CNN’s Cillizza Thought Senator Bill Nelson Too Political at Town Hall

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Source Article from https://www.newsbusters.org/blogs/nb/pj-gladnick/2018/02/23/even-cnns-cillizza-thought-senator-bill-nelson-too-political-town